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A2D Skyshark

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A2D Skyshark
Type Attack aircraft
Manufacturer Douglas Aircraft Company
Maiden flight 1950
Status Cancelled
Primary user United States Navy
Number built 12 (4 never flew)

The Douglas A2D Skyshark was a turboprop-powered attack aircraft built by the Douglas Aircraft Company for the United States Navy.

Design and development

On 25 June 1945, BuAer asked Douglas Aircraft for a turbine-powered, propellor-driven aircraft.[1] Three proposals were put forth in the next year and a half: the D-557A, to use two General Electric TG-100s in wing nacelles; the D-557B, the same engine, with contra-props; and the D-557C, to use the Westinghouse 25D.[2] These were cancelled, due to engine development difficulties, but BuAer continued to seek an answer to thirsty jets.[3]

On 11 June 1947,[4] Douglas got the Navy's letter of intent for a carrier-based turboprop. The need to operate from Casablanca-class escort carriers dictated the use of a turboprop instead of jet power.[5] The advantages of turboprop engines over pistons was in power-to-weight ratio and the maximum power that could be generated practically. The advantage over jets was that a turboprop ran at near full RPM all the time, and thrust could be quickly generated by simply changing the propeller pitch.

While resembling the AD Skyraider, the A2D was an entirely different airplane, as it had to be, the XT-40-A2 at 5100 hp[6] having more than double the horsepower of the Skyraider's R3350.[7] Wing root thickness decreased, from 17% to 12%, while both the height of the tail and its area grew.[8]

Engine development problems delayed the first flight until 26 May 1950, made at Muroc by George Jansen.[9] Allison failed to deliver a "production" engine until 1953, and while testing an XA2D with that engine, test pilot C. G. "Doc" Livingston pulled out of a dive and was surprised by a loud noise and pitch up. His windscreen was covered with oil and the chase pilot told Livingston that the propellers were gone. The gearbox had failed. Livingston successfully landed the airplane. By the summer of 1954, the A4D was ready to fly. The escort carriers were being mothballed, and time had run out for the troubled A2D program.[10] Due largely to the failure of the T40 program to produce a reliable engine, the Skyshark never entered operational service.

12 Skysharks were built. Most were scrapped or destroyed in accidents, and only one is believed to have survived. One was sighted at the airport at Idaho Falls, Idaho, in September of 2006, and appeared to be in airworthy condition.

Specifications (XA2D-1)

Data from Encyclopedia of American Aircraft[11]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 1
  • Length: 41 ft 3 in (12.58 m)
  • Wingspan: 50 ft 0 in (15.24 m)
  • Height: 17 ft 1 in (3.68 m)
  • Wing area: 400 ft² (37 m²)
  • Empty weight: 12,900 lb (5,864 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 18,700 lb (8,500 kg)
  • Max takeoff weight: 22,960 lb (10,436 kg)
  • Powerplant:Allison XT-40-A-2 turboprop, 5,100 shp (3,800 kW)




  1. Francillon, René J. McDonnell Douglas aircraft since 1920 (Putnam, 1979), p.472.
  2. Francillon, p.472.
  3. Francillon, p.472.
  4. Francillon, p.472.
  5. Heinemann and Rausa 1980, p. 177.
  6. Francillon, p.473.
  7. Francillon, p.473.
  8. Francillon, p.473.
  9. Francillon, p.473.
  10. Heinemann and Rausa 1980, p. 183.
  11. Baugher, Joe (2001-10-24). Douglas XA2D-1 Skyshark. Encyclopedia of American Aircraft.

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ja:A2D (航空機)