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Cessna Citation

From PlaneSpottingWorld, for aviation fans everywhere
Citation families
Cessna Citation II
Type Business jet
Manufacturer Cessna
Variants Citation III-VI-VII
Citation Sovereign
CitationJet/CJ series
Citation Mustang
Citation X
Citation Columbus

The Cessna Citation is a marketing name used by Cessna for its line of business jets. Rather than one particular model of aircraft, the name applies to several "families" of turbofan-powered aircraft which have been produced over the years. Within each of the six distinct families, aircraft design improvements, market pressures and re-branding efforts have resulted in a number of variants, so that the Citation lineage has become quite complex. Military variants include the T-47 and UC-35 series aircraft.

Citation product lineage overview

File:Cessna citation 503CC.jpg
Oldest flying Citation I

  • FanJet 500, the prototype for the original Citation family, first flew 1969-09-15.[1]
    • Citation I (Model 500) originally called the Citation 500 before Cessna finally settled on Citation I, by which time the design had changed quite a bit from the FanJet 500. The original Citation I was one of the first light corporate jets to be powered by turbofan engines. Production ceased in 1985.[2]
    • Citation I/SP (Model 501) single-pilot operations[3]
    • Citation II (Model 550) a larger stretched development of the Model 500 first produced in 1978. Initially replaced by the S/II in production, but was brought back and produced side-by-side with the S/II until the Bravo was introduced.[4][5]
      • T-47 (Model 552) is the military designation of the Citation II. The U.S. Navy purchased 15 T-47A aircraft as radar system trainers, and the DoD purchased five OT-47B models for drug interdiction reconnaissance.[6]
      • Citation II/SP (Model 551) single-pilot operations[4][7]
      • Citation S/II (Model S550) incorporated a number of improvements, especially an improved wing. Replaced the II in production.[4][8]
      • Citation Bravo (Model 550) updated II and S/II with new PW530A engines, landing gear and Primus 1000 avionics.[9][10] The last Citation Bravo rolled off the production line in late 2006, ending a nearly 10 year production run of 337 aircraft.[11]
    • Citation V (Model 560), growth variant of the Citation II/SP JT15D-5A[12][13]
      • Citation Ultra (Model 560) upgraded Citation V with JT15D-5D, EFIS instruments[13]
        • UC-35A Army transport version of the V Ultra.
        • UC-35C Marine Corps version of the V Ultra.[14]
      • Citation Encore (Model 560) upgraded Citation Ultra with PW535A engines and improved trailing-link landing gear[13]
        • UC-35B Army transport version of the Encore.
        • UC-35D Marine Corps version of the Encore.[14]
        • Citation Encore+ (Model 560) upgraded Encore includes FADEC and a redesigned avionics.[13]
  • Citation III (Model 650) all-new design.[15][16][17]
    • Citation IV was a proposed upgrade of the III, but was cancelled by Cessna.[15]
    • Citation VI (Model 650) was a low-cost derivative of the III which had a different avionics suite and non-custom interior design.[15][16]
    • Citation VII (Model 650) was an upgrade of the III that was in production from 1992 to 2000.[15][18]
  • Citation X (Model 750) (X as in the Roman numeral for ten), an all-new design, the fastest civilian aircraft in the world since the retirement of Concorde.[19] 24 feet of stand-up cabin space.[20]
  • Citation Excel (Model 560XL), utilized a shortened Citation X fuselage combined with the V Ultra's straight wing and the V's tail; used new PW545A engines.[21][22] Includes a stand-up cabin.
    • Citation XLS, evolved from the Excel
    • Citation XLS+ which includes FADEC (Full Authority Digital Engine Control) and a redesigned avionics system.[23]
  • Citation Sovereign (Model 680), utilizes a stretched version of the Excel's fuselage with an all-new moderately swept wing.[24][25] Stand-up cabin is 24 feet long.[26]
  • CitationJet (Model 525) essentially an all-new design, the only carry-over being the Citation I's forward fuselage.[27] The 525 series models all feature a shorter cabin; Not a stand-up.
    • CJ1 (Model 525) Improved version of the CitationJet[27]
      • CJ1+ (Model 525) Improved version of the CJ1 with new engines, avionics, and FADEC[28][29]
    • CJ2 (Model 525A) Stretched version of the CJ1.[27]
      • CJ2+ (Model 525A) Improved version of the CJ2 with increased performance, improved avionics, and FADEC.[30]
    • CJ3 (Model 525B) Extension of the CJ2.[31]
    • CJ4 (Model 525C) An extension of the CJ3, with new Williams FJ44-4 engines and the moderately swept wing borrowed from the Sovereign.[32] The first flight of the CJ4 is slated for the first half of 2008 with customer deliveries to follow in 2010.[33]

Original Citation family

The Citation name also frequently applies to the original straight-wing family of jets, each of which has evolved from the first Citation I.

FanJet 500

In October, 1968, Cessna announced plans to build an eight-place business jet that, unlike its competition, would be suitable for operations from shorter airfields, essentially aiming to compete in the light-to-medium twin turboprop market, rather than the existing business jet market. First flight of the prototype aircraft, then called the FanJet 500, took place a little under a year later, on September 15, 1969[1]

Citation I series

After a longer-than-expected development flight test program, during which the name Citation 500 was tried, and a number of changes to the design, the finished aircraft was debuted with the new name Citation (Model 500) and received its FAA certification in September, 1971. The aircraft was powered by two Pratt & Whitney Canada JT15D-1 turbofan engines. With fan engines, rather than turbojet engines such as powered the contemporary Learjet 25, and a straight, rather than swept wings, the Citation was over 120 knots slower than the Lear 25 (max speed of 350 kts compared with 473 kts for the LJ25), which led to nicknames such as "Slowtation" and "Nearjet", and raised eyebrows in the aviation media.[1][36]. The Citation I had a maximum take-off weight of 10,850lbs, and a maximum of 8 people on board.[37]

In 1976, several product improvements were added to the aircraft in response to market pressures, including a higher maximum gross weight and thrust reversers, which made shorter landing fields available to customers. With these improvements came the name Citation I[1]

When production on the Citation I finally ended in 1985, 377 airframes had been built.[2] The aircraft's position in the Citation product line was not filled until much later, with the introduction of the Cessna CitationJet.

Like the Learjets, the Citation I required a crew of two. Since the Citation was intended to be marketed against twin turboprops, which can be flown by a single pilot, this restriction limited its intended market. Cessna's answer was the Model 501 Citation I/SP, with SP referring to its certified single-pilot capability. The aircraft was first delivered in early 1977, and a total of 312 were produced, and production also ended in 1985.[1][3] New York Yankees catcher Thurman Munson was killed in his Citation I/SP on August 2, 1979 while practicing touch and gos.[38]

Citation II series

The Citation II, Model 550, was a direct development from the Citation I.[1] The earlier aircraft's success in the market led Cessna to believe there was demand for a larger aircraft that utilized the same design philosophy. The result was the Citation II, which had a maximum seating capacity of 10. In addition to more seats, the plane had more powerful JT15D4 engines, faster speeds and longer range. First flight was on January 31, 1977, and the aircraft was certified for two-pilot operation in March, 1978.[4] A total of 603 aircraft were built before the Citation II was replaced by the Bravo in the production line.[5]

Like the Citation I/SP, the Model 551 Citation II/SP as Cessna's means of competing in the turboprop market, which predominantly are operated single-pilot, so the aircraft was re-certified for single-pilot operations.

The Model 552 T-47A was the designation given by the U.S. Navy to the Citation II. Fifteen aircraft were purchased by the Navy to train its F-14 Tomcat Radar Intercept Officers. The T-47A was modified by incorporating JT15D5 engines, shortened wings, multiple radar consoles and the AN/APQ-159 radar system from the F-14.[39] All but one were destroyed in a hangar fire, and the Navy replaced them with upgraded T-39s[40] Another version of the Model 552 was the OT-47B, five of which were purchased by the Department of Defense for use in drug interdiction reconnaissance operations, based at Maxwell Air Force Base. The OT-47B utilized the F-16's APG-66(V) fire control radar system and the WF-360TL imaging system.[6]

In October 1983, Cessna announced that they would be improving the aircraft, and the upgraded Model S550 Citation S/II first flew February 14, 1984. The aircraft utilized an improved version of the engine, JT15D4B, while the rest of the improvements were aerodynamic in nature. The wing was replaced with one using a supercritical airfoil, which had been developed for the Citation III. The S/II was certified, like the II/SP, with a single-pilot exemption. Once certification was in hand, the S/II replaced the II in the product line in late 1984. However, due to market demands, the II was returned to production in 1987. The S/II was discontinued after the 1988 production year. The II continued in production until 1994, and was replaced by the Bravo in 1997.

Citation V

After stretching the Citation I to make the II, Cessna decided to increase the size of the cabin again, stretching the fuselage by another 20 inches, resulting in the largest member of the straight-wing family, the Model 560 Citation V. The first engineering prototype flew in August, 1987, and certification was granted in December, 1988. The aircraft utilized the T-47A's JT15D5A engines for extra performance. By the time the aircraft was superseded in 1994, 262 had been built.[12]

Citation Ultra and Encore

In 1993, Cessna decided to update the Citation V design, and announced that the Citation Ultra, with the main differences being in the engines, which were the latest JT15D-5D version, and the standard avionics suite, which was updated to the Honeywell Primus 1000 EFIS glass cockpit.[12] In 1994, the Ultra was named Flying magazine's "Best Business Jet". The Ultra was produced from 1994-1999.

The UC-35A is the U.S. Army designation and UC-35C is the U.S. Marine Corps designation for the Citation Ultra, which replaced older versions of the C-12 Huron.[41]

Five years later, in 1998, the Model 560 was upgraded again as the Citation Encore, with Pratt & Whitney Canada PW535A engines and an increase in fuel capacity.[12][42] The Encore was certified in April 2000 with first delivery in late September 2000. The next upgrade was the Citation Encore+, with the addition of FADEC-controlled PW535B engines and Rockwell-Collins Pro Line 21 avionics suite.[43] The Encore+ was certified by the FAA in December 2006, with deliveries of production aircraft expected in the first quarter of 2007.

The UC-35B is the Army designation and UC-35D is the Marine Corps designation for the Citation Encore.[44][14]

Citation Bravo

By 1994, the Citation II and S/II had been in production for 10 years, and it was time to integrate new technology. Cessna thus announced the development of the Citation Bravo. While it was built on the basic S/II airframe, the new aircraft was powered by Pratt & Whitney Canada PW530A engines. The main landing gear was replaced by the smoother-riding trailing link configuration adopted by other members of the Citation line, and the standard avionics suite was updated to the Honeywell Primus 1000 glass cockpit.[10] The new aircraft first flew on April 25, 1995, but certification did not come for over a year, finally being granted in August, 1996.[4] Production of the Bravo ceased in late 2006 after 337 had been produced.[11]


Military operators


Accidents and incidents

  • On 30 March 2008, a Citation 501 came down in Farnborough in Kent in the United Kingdom, crashing into a house and garage. All of the plane's 5 occupants (2 pilots and 3 passengers), which included former BTCC driver David Leslie, were killed in the accident.[45] Police have said a few people suffered minor injuries on the ground, mostly suffering from shock. Residents in the most severely damaged house were thought to be away. The pilot reported strong engine vibrations before crashing. The plane, which was privately owned, was en route from Biggin Hill in Bromley, to Circuit Paul Armagnac in southwestern France.[46] Template:Seealso

Specifications Cessna S550 Citation S/II

General characteristics


For an explanation of the units and abbreviations in this list, please see Wikipedia:WikiProject Aircraft/Units key.

See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft


  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 The Cessna 500 & 501 Citation, Citation I & Citation I/SP at
  2. 2.0 2.1 Citation I info from Aviation Safety Network
  3. 3.0 3.1 Citation I/SP info from Aviation Safety Network
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 The Cessna Citation II & Bravo from
  5. 5.0 5.1 Citation II info from Aviation Safety Network
  6. 6.0 6.1 OT-47B information from
  7. Citation II/SP info from Aviation Safety Network
  8. Citation S550 info from Aviation Safety Network
  9. Citation Bravo info from Aviation Safety Network
  10. 10.0 10.1 "Cessna Citation Bravo Light Business Jet Cessna Citation Bravo Light Business Jet, USA",
  11. 11.0 11.1 Cessna Press Release Recent Milestones for Cessna’s Citation Business Jet Programs July 17, 2006
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 12.3 The Cessna 560 Citation V, Ultra & Encore from
  13. 13.0 13.1 13.2 13.3 Citation V, Ultra and Encore info from Aviation Safety Network
  14. 14.0 14.1 14.2 "NAVAIR Oversees Final Marine Corps Cessna Citation Encore Delivery" May 24, 2006
  15. 15.0 15.1 15.2 15.3 The Cessna Citation III, VI & VII from
  16. 16.0 16.1 Citation III and VI info from Aviation Safety Network
  17. "Cessna Citation CJ3 Business Jet Cessna Citation CJ3 Business Jet, USA",
  18. Citation VII info from Aviation Safety Network
  19. The Cessna Citation X from
  20. Cessna Citation X web site
  21. The Cessna 560XL Citation Excel from
  22. Citation Excel info from Aviation Safety Network
  23. Cessna XLS+ web site
  24. The Cessna 680 Citation Sovereign from
  25. Citation 680 Sovereign info from Aviation Safety Network
  26. Cessna Sovereign web site
  27. 27.0 27.1 27.2 The Cessna CitationJet, CJ1 & CJ2 from
  28. Cessna Citation CJ1+ web site
  29. "New Cessna Citation CJ1 Receives FAA Type Certification", Jobwerx News
  30. Cessna CJ2+ web site
  31. Cessna Citation CJ3 web site
  32. Cessna Citation CJ4 web site
  33. Cessna Press Release Cessna Launches Citation CJ4 at NBAA; Starts Show with 70 Orders Cessna In the News, October 16, 2006
  34. Cessna Citation Mustang web site
  35. Cessna Citation Columbus web site
  36. Aircraft Nicknames
  37. [1]
  38. NTSB Thurman Munson accident brief
  39. Model Designation of Military Aerospace Vehicles, Department of Defense, Publication DoD 4120.15-L, 2004-05-12
  40. Global article on the T-47A
  41. UC-35A information from
  42. Citation Encore specifications from Cessna
  43. Citation Encore+ specifications from Cessna
  44. UC-35B information from
  45. Template:Citeweb
  46. No survivors in Kent plane crash

External links

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It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Cessna Citation".