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Ilyushin Il-12

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The Ilyushin Il-12 (NATO reporting name "Coach") was a Soviet twin-engined cargo aircraft, developed in the mid-1940s for Aeroflot.

History and development

The aircraft was intended to replace the Lisunov Li-2, which was a licence produced version of the Douglas DC-3. The new aircraft followed a classical layout for a twin engined transport, with a metallic structure, monoplane wings, a conventional tail section. One major improvement over the Li-2 design was the tricycle gear, which allowed better visibility when taxiing and landing. It had increased wing surface compared with the DC-3/Li2, which was necessary owing to the increased power.

The aircraft made its maiden flight on 15 August 1945 [1], powered by two ACh-31 diesel engines (each producing 1,500 hp). It was soon decided to re-engine the aircraft with Shvetsov ASh-82 radial engines, the revised aircraft flying on 9 January 1946 [1].

It was found to have major problems during testing, having poor engine out characteristics and requiring a strut under the rear fuselage to prevent tipping during loading [2] due to CG problems. Further problems was the use of magnesium near the engines which in case of engine fire could cause a uncontrolled fire, damaging the wing structure. This led to a crash with a complete loss of lives after the wing of the airplane collapsed during flight after an engine fire. The magnesium was replaced by aluminium alloys.

The fuselage had a considerable volume, and was equipped with 8 rectangular windows on each side. The crew consisted of 3 and the aircraft could transport 32 soldiers, 32 parachutists or cargo. There was also a civil version, which although designed to carry up to 32 passengers, was limited in Aeroflot service to 21, with normally only 18 carried[2]. This meant that use of the Il-12 for passenger use was un-economic. Some 663 Il-12 were manufactured[2].

The aircraft was later improved into the Ilyushin Il-14.


  • Il-12 : Twin-engined passenger, cargo transport aircraft.
  • Il-12A : Unmodified Ilyushin Il-12 aircraft.
  • Il-12B : Modified Ilyushin Il-12 aircraft, fitted with an improved de-icing system, lengthened nosewheel and a small dorsal fin fillet.
  • Il-12D : Twin-engined military transport aircraft for the Soviet Air Force.


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Specifications (Il-12)

Data from The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft from 1875 - 1995 [2]

General characteristics

  • Crew: 3
  • Capacity: 21 passengers
  • Length: 21.31 m (69 ft 11 in)
  • Wingspan: 31.7 m (104 ft 0 in)
  • Height: 8.07 m [3] (26 ft 5⅝in)
  • Wing area: 103 m² (1,109 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 11,045 kg (24,350 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 17,250 kg (38,029 lb)
  • Powerplant:ASh-82FNV 14 cylinder two-row air cooled radial engine, 1,380 kW (1,850 hp) each


  • Maximum speed: 407 km/h (220 kn, 253 mph) at 2,500 m (8,200 ft)
  • Range: 1,500 km with 26 passengers (810 nmi, 932 mi)
  • Service ceiling: 6,500 m (21,325 ft)
  • Climb to 5,000 m (16,400 ft): 15 minutes
  • Endurance: 4.5 hr


  1. 1.0 1.1 Dates of Maiden Flights by Aircraft Designed by "Ilyushin" Design Bureau.. Ilyushin Aviation Complex. Retrieved on 2007-08-25.
  2. 2.0 2.1 2.2 2.3 Gunston, Bill (1995). The Osprey Encyclopedia of Russian Aircraft from 1875 - 1995. London: Osprey Aerospace. ISBN 1-85532-405-9. 
  3. ILyushin IL-12 Coach (Dutch). Retrieved on 2007-08-25.

cs:Iljušin Il-12 de:Iljuschin Il-12 es:Ilyushin Il-12 it:Ilyushin Il-12 ja:Il-12 (航空機) hu:Il–12 no:Iljusjin Il-12 pl:Ił-12 ru:Ил-12 vi:Ilyushin Il-12

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Ilyushin Il-12".