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Yakovlev UT-2

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File:Yak-UT-2 a.jpg
Yakovlev UT-2

The Yakovlev UT-2 (Russian: УТ-2) was a trainer aircraft used by the Soviet Air Force from 1937 until the 1950s. It was a standard Soviet trainer during the World War II.


The UT-2 was designed as a modern trainer plane, more suitable for training pilots of modern and fast aircraft, than the older U-2 (Po-2) biplane. The new plane was designed by Yakovlev's team. The first attempt was the AIR-9 of 1933 - a low-wing monoplane with a closed canopy, but it was considered too complicated for a primary trainer. The next design, AIR-10, was based upon the AIR-9, but it was simpler, with two separate open cockpits, and lacking slats and flaps. It was flown on July 11, 1935. The AIR-10 won the competition with other trainer designs in 1935 and, after changes, was accepted as a standard trainer plane. A temporary designation for this plane became Ya-20 (Я-20). This is just because of the original AIR was the abbreviated name of Alexey Ivanovich Rykov [1], a communist leader executed in 1938. Yakovlev changed names of his aircraft to the politically safe Ya. The mixed construction (wood and metal) of the AIR-10 was changed to wooden only, to simplify production. A prototype used the 112 kW (150 hp) Shvetsov M-11E radial, but production aircraft used 82 kW (110 hp) M-11Gs. The serial production of the new plane started in September 1937. The plane was given the designation UT-2 (uchebno-trenirovochnyi {учебно-тренировочный}, primary/advanced trainer).

The UT-2 became the standard Soviet Air Force trainer, used also by civilian aviation. However, it soon demonstrated it was not easy to fly, with a tendency to go into spin. After some changes to its construction, the plane became safer and was fitted with the 93 kW (125 hp) M-11D, as the UT-2 model 1940.

To improve handling and stability, a new UT-2M (modernized) variant was developed in 1941 and put into production. The shape of wings was totally new, with a swept leading edge instead of a straight one (the wing's trailing edge was now straight), and the fin was larger.

In total, 7,243 aircraft UT-2 and UT-2M were produced in five factories between 1937 and 1946. Despite all improvements, the handling and flight characteristics of the UT-2 were never excellent. In the 1950s they were replaced with the Yak-18 as a primary trainer and the Yak-11 as an advanced trainer. After the war, the UT-2 and =2M were also used by countries like Poland and Hungary.


File:Yak-UT-2 b.jpg
Yakovlev UT-2

In 1936, Yakovlev developed also very similar, but smaller, single-seater trainer-aerobatic aircraft, the UT-1, of which 1,241 were built between 1937 and 1940. An interesting variant of the AIR-10 (called in some sources AIR-20) was fitted with a 104 kW (140 hp) Renault Bengali inline engine, but it was not produced in favor of the M-11 variant. More advanced versions2 included the UT-2MV of 1942 and the UT-2L of 1943 with a closed canopy, which led to the development of the Yak-18. During World War II, the UT-2 was also tested as a light bomber, armed with 200 kg (440 lb) of bombs, rockets or machineguns. A floatplane version was designated the VT-2.


Wooden construction trainer plane, conventional in layout, with low-wings, canvas and plywood covered. Two separate open cockpits in tandem, each with a windscreen. 5 cylinder M-11 radial engine, two-blade fixed pitch propeller. Conventional fixed landing gear with optional large wheel pants (usually removed). In winter it could operate on skis.


Specifications (Yak-UT-2)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2: student and instructor
  • Length: 7.15 m (23 ft 5 in)
  • Wingspan: 10.2 m (33 ft 5 in)
  • Height: 2.99 m (9 ft 10 in)
  • Wing area: 17.12 m² (184 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 628 kg (1,382 lb)
  • Loaded weight: kg (lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 940 kg (3,083 lb)
  • Powerplant:Shvetsov M-11D air-cooled radial, 75 kW (100 hp)


See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

cs:Jakovlev UT-2 de:Jakowlew UT-2 eo:Jakovlev UT-2 pl:UT-2 ru:УТ-2 vi:Yakovlev UT-2

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Yakovlev UT-2".