|EC-135E nicknamed "Bird of Prey" at the National Museum of the United States Air Force|
|Type||Tracking and Telemetry Platform|
|Primary user||United States Air Force|
|Developed from||C-135 Stratolifter|
Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft
The Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft are EC-135Bs modified C-135B cargo aircraft and EC-18B (former American Airlines 707-320) passenger aircraft that provided tracking and telemetry information to support the US space program in the late 1960s and early 1970s.
During the early 1960s, NASA and the Department of Defense (DoD) needed a very mobile tracking and telemetry platform to support the Apollo space program and other unmanned space flight operations. In a joint project, NASA and the DoD contracted with the McDonnell Douglas and the Bendix Corporations to modify eight Boeing C-135 Stratolifter cargo aircraft into Apollo / Range Instrumentation Aircraft (A/RIA). Equipped with a steerable seven-foot antenna dish in its distinctive "Droop Snoot" or "Snoopy Nose," the EC-135N A/RIA became operational in January 1968, and was often known as the Jimmy Durante of the Air Force. The Air Force Eastern Test Range at Patrick AFB, Florida, maintained and operated the A/RIA until the end of the Apollo program in 1972, when the USAF renamed it the Advanced Range Instrumentation Aircraft (ARIA).
Transferred to the 4950th Test Wing at Wright-Patterson AFB, Ohio, in December 1975 as part of an overall consolidation of large test and evaluation aircraft, the ARIA fleet underwent numerous conversions - including a re-engining that changed the EC-135N to the EC-135E. In 1994, the ARIA fleet relocated to Edwards AFB, California, as part of the 412th Test Wing. However, taskings for the ARIA dwindled because of high costs and improved satellite technology, and the USAF transferred the aircraft to other programs such as J-STARS.
On November 3, 2000, a flight crew from the Air Force Flight Test Center delivered the last EC-135E, (serial number 60-374 - nicknamed "The Bird of Prey"), with full Prime Mission Electronic Equipment (PMEE), to the National Museum of the United States Air Force, at Wright-Patterson AFB near Dayton, Ohio. Over its thirty-two year career, the ARIA supported the United States space program, gathered telemetry, verified international treaties, and supported cruise missile, ballistic missile defense tests, and the Space Shuttle.
The United States' nuclear strategy depends on its ability to command, control, and communicate with its nuclear forces under all conditions. An essential element of that ability is Looking Glass; its crew and staff ensure there is always an aircraft ready to direct bombers and missiles from the air should ground-based command centers be destroyed or rendered inoperable. Looking Glass is intended to guarantee that U.S. strategic forces will act only in the manner dictated by the President of the United States. It took the nickname "Looking Glass" because the mission mirrored ground-based command, control, and communications. Besides being the program name, "Looking Glass" is the official name for the C model aircraft. It has a crew of at least 15 including at least one or more general officer.
The now-deactivated Strategic Air Command began the mission on February 3, 1961, using Boeing EC-135 aircraft. From that date an Air Force Looking Glass aircraft was in the air at all times 24 hours a day, 365 days a year, for almost 30 years accumulating more than 281,000 accident-free flying hours. On October 1, 1998 the Navy's E-6 Mercury TACAMO replaced the EC-135C in the Looking Glass mission.
The Dark Angel program provided three EC-135H command post aircraft to the Commander in Chief, U.S. Europe (CinCUSEUR), which were based at RAF Mildenhall. All three aircraft were subsequently retired.
Nightwatch was a program initiated in the mid-1960s utilizing three EC-135J aircraft, modified from KC-135Bs, as command post aircraft. The three Nightwatch aircraft were stationed at Andrews AFB, ready to fly the President and his staff out of Washington in the event of a nuclear attack. When the Boeing E-4 aircraft came on line with the Nightwatch program, all three EC-135Js were retired.
- EC-135A - KC-135A modified for airborne national command post role
- EC-135B - C-135B modified with large nose for ARIA mission
- EC-135C - redesignated KC-135B for the Looking Glass program
- EC-135E - re-engined EC-135N
- EC-135G - KC-135A modified for airborne national command post role
- EC-135H - KC-135A modified for airborne national command post role, "Dark Angel"
- EC-135J - KC-135B modified for airborne national command post role, "Nightwatch"
- EC-135K - KC-135A modified for deployment control duties
- EC-135L - KC-135A modified for radio relay and amplitude modulation dropout capability
- EC-135N - ARIA aircraft with "Snoopy Nose"
- EC-135P - KC-135A modified for airborne national command post role
- EC-135Y - NKC-135 reconfigured as C3 aircraft for Commander-in-Chief, United States Central Command
Lists relating to aviation
|General||Timeline of aviation · Aircraft · Aircraft manufacturers · Aircraft engines · Aircraft engine manufacturers · Airports · Airlines|
|Military||Air forces · Aircraft weapons · Missiles · Unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) · Experimental aircraft|
|Notable incidents |
|Military aviation · Airliners · General aviation · Famous aviation-related deaths|
|Records||Flight airspeed record · Flight distance record · Flight altitude record · Flight endurance record · Most produced aircraft|