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N3N Canary

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Naval Aircraft Factory N3N-3 Canary

The N3N was a two-place primary training biplane built by the Naval Aircraft Factory (N.A.F.) in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. The N3N was delivered both as a landplane and a seaplane. The seaplane used a single float under the fuselage and floats under the outer tips of the lower wing. The landplane used a fixed landing gear. The aircraft was powered by a radial Wright designed R-760 Whirlwind engine that developed 225 horsepower (168 kW). Many of these engines were also built by the N.A.F.

The N.A.F. delivered over 900 N3N aircraft beginning in 1935. Of these were N3N-1s and over 750 were N3N-3s. Four of the N3N-3 aircraft were delivered to the United States Coast Guard in 1941. The N3N was the last biplane in US military service - the last (used by the U.S. Naval Academy) were retired in 1961. The N3N was also unique in that it was an aircraft designed and manufactured by an aviation firm wholly owned and operated by the U.S. government (or the Navy, in this specific case) as opposed to private industry.

Specifications (N3N-3)

General characteristics

  • Crew: two, student and instructor
  • Length: 25 ft 6 in (7.77 m)
  • Wingspan: 34 ft 0 in (10.36 m)
  • Height: 10 ft 10 in (3.30 m)
  • Wing area: 305 ft² (28.3 m²)
N3N-3 "CF-HUS" seen at Garden Bay, BC - 2006-09-05
  • Empty: 2,090 lb (948 kg)
  • Loaded: lb ( kg)
  • Maximum takeoff: 2,792 lb (1,266 kg)
  • Powerplant:Wright R-760-2 Whirlwind radial, 235 hp (175 kW)


  • Maximum speed: 126 mph (203 km/h)
  • Range: 470 miles (756 km)
  • Service ceiling: 15,200 ft (4,635 m)
  • Rate of climb: ft/min ( m/min)
  • Wing loading: lb/ft² ( kg/m²)
  • Power/mass: hp/lb ( kW/kg)

Related content

Related development:

Comparable aircraft:

Designation sequence: N2N - N3N - XN5N

de:NAS N3N-3 fr:NAF N3N Canary