PlaneSpottingWorld welcomes all new members! Please gives your ideas at the Terminal.

Avro Lancastrian

From PlaneSpottingWorld, for aviation fans everywhere
Type Passenger and mail transport
Manufacturer Avro
Designed by Roy Chadwick
Maiden flight 1943
Introduced 1945 (BOAC)
Retired 1960s
Primary users BOAC
Trans Canada Airlines
Royal Air Force
Produced 1943-1945
Number built 91 (including conversions)
Developed from Avro Lancaster

The Avro 691 Lancastrian was a British passenger and mail transport aircraft of the 1940s and 1950s developed from the Avro Lancaster bomber (an inhabitant of Lancaster city is a Lancastrian).

The Lancastrian was very similar to the Lancaster, differing primarily in having all of the armament removed and faired over, and a streamlined non-glazed metal nose. The Avro York was a similar conversion with a redesigned fuselage.

Design and development

In 1943, Avro through its wartime Victory Aircraft Canadian subsidiary converted a Lancaster X bomber for civil transport duties with Trans-Canada Airlines (TCQ). This conversion was a success resulting in eight additional Lancaster Xs being converted. The "specials" were powered by Packard-built Merlin 38 engines and featured a lengthened, streamlined nose and tail cone. Range was enhanced by two 400-gallon Lancaster long-range fuel tanks fitted as standard in the bomb bay. These Lancastrians were used by TCA on its MontrealPrestwick route.

Operational history

In 1945, deliveries commenced of 30 British-built Lancastrians for BOAC. On a demonstration flight on 23 April 1945, G-AGLF flew 13,500 miles (21,700 km) from England to Auckland, New Zealand in three days, 14 hours at an average speed of 220 mph (354 km/h).

Since the Lancastrian had rather limited cubic capacity yet was fast and had a long range, it was most suited for transport of mail and VIP passengers. BOAC used it for flights between England and Australia from 31 May 1945. It also served with the RAF, one of whose planes named Aries completed the first airborne circumnavigation of the globe, as well as serving with QANTAS and Flota Aerea Mercante Argentina.

Lancastrians were also used during the Berlin Airlift to transport petrol; 15 aircraft made over 5,000 trips.

Lancastrians were also used for tests of various turboprop and jet engines. One powered with Rolls-Royce Nene turbojets is credited with the first international passenger jet flight from London to Paris on 23 November 1946; the flight time was just 41 minutes.

Star Dust

The B.S.A.A Lancastrian 3, Star Dust

On 2 August 1947, Lancastrian G-AGWH Star Dust of British South American Airways crashed in the Argentinean Andes after sending a cryptic radio message, what became known as the "Stendec incident". The wreckage was found 50 years later but the radio message remains a puzzle. Stendec was later adopted as the name of a UFO magazine.

The probable cause of the crash was a navigation error due to the then unknown effect of fast-moving, high altitude airstreams. Headwinds meant that dead reckoning of their position was inaccurate and the pilot started the descent while the plane was still over and not past the crest of the Andes mountains.


Lancaster XPP
Nine built by converting Lancasters at Victory Aircraft Ltd Canada.
Lancastrian C.1
Nine-seat transport aircraft for BOAC and Qantas. Royal Air Force designation Lancastrian C.1 to Specification 16/44. A total of 23 built by Avro
Lancastrian C.2
Nine-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF. A total of 33 built by Avro
Lancastrian 3
13-seat transport aircraft for British South American Airways. A total of 18 built by Avro
Lancastrian C.4
Ten to 13-seat military transport aircraft for the RAF. Eight built by Avro


Civil Operators

Template:Country data Canada

Military Operators


Specifications (Lancastrian C.1)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 5
  • Capacity: 9 passengers
  • Payload: 3,560 kg of mail ()
  • Length: 76 ft 10 in (23.4 m)
  • Wingspan: 102 ft (31.1 m)
  • Height: 19 ft 6 in (5.9 m)
  • Wing area: 1,297 ft² (120.5 m²)
  • Empty weight: 30,426 lb (13,800 kg)
  • Loaded weight: 65,000 lb (29,480 kg)
  • Powerplant:Rolls Royce Merlin 12 piston, 1,250 hp (930 kW) each


See also

Related development

See also
List of aircraft of the RAF




  • Franks, Richard A. The Avro Lancaster, Manchester and Lincoln: A Comprehensive Guide for the Modeller. London: SAM Publications, 2000. ISBN 0-9533465-3-6.
  • Holmes, Harry. Avro Lancaster (Combat Legend series). Shrewsbury, UK: Airlife Publishing Ltd., 2002. ISBN 1-84037-376-8.
  • Jackson, A.J. Avro Aircraft since 1908, 2nd edition. London: Putnam Aeronautical Books, 1990. ISBN 0-85177-834-8.
  • Mackay, R.S.G. Lancaster in action. Carrollton, Texas: Squadron/Signal Publications Inc., 1982. ISBN 0-89747-130-X.
  • Milberry, Larry. The Canadair North Star. Toronto: CANAV Books, 1982. ISBN 0-07-549965-7.
  • Taylor, John W. R. "Avro Lancaster." Combat Aircraft of the World from 1909 to the present. New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1969. ISBN 0-425-03633-2.

External links

de:Avro 691 it:Avro 691 Lancastrian ja:アブロ ランカストリアン pl:Avro Lancastrian

This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Avro Lancastrian".