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Westland Lynx

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The Westland Lynx is a British multi-purpose military helicopter designed and built by Westland Helicopters at its factory in Yeovil. Originally intended as a utility craft for both civil and naval usage, military interest led to the development of both battlefield and naval variants. The Lynx went into operational usage in 1977 and was later adopted by the armed forces of over a dozen nations, primarily serving in the battlefield utility, anti-armour, search and rescue and anti-submarine warfare roles. In 1986 a specially modified Lynx set the current Fédération Aéronautique Internationale's official airspeed record for helicopters.[1] The helicopter is now produced and marketed by AgustaWestland.

Contents

Development

The initial design (then known as the Westland WG.13) was started in the mid-1960s as a replacement for the Westland Scout and Wasp, and a more advanced alternative to the UH-1 Iroquois.[2] As part of the Anglo-French helicopter agreement signed in February 1967, the French company Aérospatiale were given a work share in the manufacturing programme.[3] Aérospatiale received 30% of production with Westland performing the remainder.[4] It was intended that France would buy Lynxes for its Navy and as an armed reconnaissance helicopter for the French Army, with the United Kingdom in return buying Aérospatiale Gazelles and Pumas for its armed forces. The French Army cancelled its requirement for Lynxes in October 1969.[3]

The original Lynx design was powered by two Rolls-Royce Gem 2 turboshaft engines, and used many components derived from the Scout and Wasp. However, the rotor was new, being of a semi-rigid design with honeycomb sandwich blades.[5][6] The first Lynx prototype took its maiden flight on 21 March 1971.[4][7]

File:Xx153 lynx.jpg
XX153 which broke the Helicopter speed record in 1972

In 1972, a Lynx broke the world speed record over 15 and 25 km by flying at Template:Convert. It also set a new 100 km closed circuit record shortly afterwards, flying at Template:Convert.[8]

The British Army ordered over 100 Lynxes, designated the Lynx AH.1 (Army Helicopter Mark 1), for different roles, such as transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (with eight TOW missiles), reconnaissance and evacuation. The Army has fitted a Marconi Elliot AFCS system onto the Lynx for automatic stabilisation on three axes.[5] Deliveries of production Lynxes began in 1977.[4]

An improved Lynx AH.1 with Gem 41-1 or Gem 42 engines and an uprated transmission was referred to as the Lynx AH.5; only five were built for evaluation purposes. The AH.5 led to the Lynx AH.7, which added a new tail rotor derived from that of the Westland 30, a reinforced airframe, improved avionics and defensive aids. These received further upgrades in service, including British Experimental Rotor Programme (BERP) rotor blades.[9]

The initial naval variant of the Lynx, known as the Lynx HAS.2 in British service, or Lynx Mk.2(FN) in French service[citation needed], differed from the Lynx AH.1 in being equipped with a tricycle undercarriage and a deck restraint systems, folding main rotor blades, an emergency flotation system and a nose-mounted radar. An improved Lynx for the Royal Navy, the Lynx HAS.3, had Gem 42-1 Mark 204 engines, an uprated transmission, a new flotation system and an Orange Crop ESM system. The Lynx HAS.3 also received various other updates in service. A similar upgrade to the French Lynx was known as the Lynx Mk.4(FN). Many different export variants based on the Lynx HAS.2 and HAS.3 were sold to other air arms.[9]

In 1986, the former company demonstrator Lynx, registered G-LYNX, was specially modified with Gem 60 engines and BERP rotor blades.[10] On 11 August 1986 the helicopter was piloted by Trevor Egginton when it set an absolute speed record for helicopters over a 15 and 25 km course by reaching 400.87 km/h (249.09 mph);[1] an official record it currently holds.[1][11]

Lynx-3

Announced in 1984, the Lynx-3 was an enhanced Lynx development, with a stretched fuselage, a redesigned tailboom and tail surfaces, Gem 60-3/1 engines and a new wheeled tricycle undercarriage.[9] The Lynx-3 also included BERP rotor blades, and increased fuel capacity.[12] Both Army and Naval variants were proposed.[5] The project was ended in 1987 due to insufficient orders.[12] Only one Army Lynx-3 prototype was built.[9]

Super Lynx and Battlefield Lynx

File:Royal Navy Lynx 318.jpg
ZD252 a Royal Navy Lynx HMA.8 about to land

A development of the Lynx AH.7 with the wheeled undercarriage of the Lynx-3 was marketed by Westland as the Battlefield Lynx in the late 1980s.[9] The prototype first flew in November 1989 and deliveries began in 1991.[13] This variant entered British Army service as the Lynx AH.9.[9]

In the early 1990s, Westland incorporated some of the technology from the Naval Lynx-3 design into a less-radical Super Lynx. This featured BERP rotor blades, the Westland 30-derived tail rotor, Gem 42 engines, a new under-nose 360-degree radar installation and an optional nose-mounted electro-optical sensor turret. Royal Navy Lynx HAS.3s upgraded to Super Lynx standard were known in service as the Lynx HMA.8, and several export customers ordered new-build or upgraded Super Lynxes. Later, Westland offered the Super Lynx 200 with LHTEC CTS800 engines and the Super Lynx 300, which also had a new cockpit and avionics derived from the AgustaWestland EH101. Both of these models have achieved several export sales.[9]

Future Lynx/Lynx Wildcat

Main article: AgustaWestland AW159

The British Army and Royal Navy Lynx fleets are due to be upgraded to a new common advanced Lynx variant based on the Super Lynx 300, with a new tailboom, undercarriage, cockpit, avionics and sensors.[9] Initially referred to as the Future Lynx, this type has since been renamed by AgustaWestland as the AW159 Lynx Wildcat.

Design

The Lynx is a multi-purpose helicopter design with a side by side cockpit for pilot and observer. It features a large sliding crew door on each side giving access to the cabin which can be used to accommodate up to nine equipped troops dependent on seating configuration, or alternatively radio equipment when used in the command post role or surplus fuel for long journeys.[9] Its twin Rolls Royce Gem turboshaft engines power a four-blade semi-rigid main rotor system.[9][14] The Lynx is an agile helicopter, capable of performing loops and rolls.

Operational history

File:Lynx 335 HMS Cardiff March 1982.jpg
A Lynx HAS.3 of Template:HMS in March 1982 prior to the Falklands War practising search and rescue.
File:LynxHAS3.jpg
Lynx HAS.3 of the Black Cats (Royal Navy) display team

The Lynx Mk.2(FN) entered service with the French Navy's Aviation navale in 1979. In British service, the Lynx is used by the Army Air Corps (AAC) and the Fleet Air Arm (FAA). The Lynx AH.1 entered service with the AAC in 1979, followed by the Lynx HAS.2 with the FAA in 1981. The FAA Lynx fleet was upgraded to Lynx HAS.3 standard during the 1980s, and again to Lynx HMA.8 standard in the 1990s. Most Army Lynx were later upgraded to Lynx AH.7 standard.[9]

Template:As of, the AAC operate the Lynx AH.7 and AH.9 as utility helicopters. Army owned Lynx AH.7 and AH.9 are also in service with the FAA where they operate as attack/utility helicopters in support of the Royal Marines. Lynx HAS.3 and HMA.8 operate as anti-submarine warfare and maritime attack helicopters equipped with the Stingray torpedo, Sea Skua anti-ship missile and depth charge for Royal Navy warships. HAS.3 and HMA.8 are also capable of anti-trafficking and anti-piracy roles when carrying boarding parties and when fitted with the FN Herstal M3M pintle mounted heavy machine gun.

The Lynx's most prominent combat role was operating the Sea Skua to devastating effect against the Iraqi Navy during the 1991 Gulf War. The Lynx also saw service with British Army forces during that conflict. The HAS.2 naval ASW variant had already taken part in combat operations in British service during the Falklands War in 1982. Although none were shot down, three were lost aboard vessels hit in Argentine air attacks, two from iron bombs on HMS Coventry and HMS Ardent, and one to Exocets on MV Atlantic Conveyor.[15]

It was used during Operation Barras to rescue 11 British soldiers in Sierra Leone on 10 September 2000.

The most recent wartime mission for the Lynx was during the invasion of Iraq in 2003. It has also seen extensive service during peacekeeping operations and exercises, and it is standard equipment for most Royal Navy surface combatants when they deploy.

A British Lynx from 847 Naval Air Squadron was shot down over Basra, Iraq on 6 May 2006. The helicopter was downed by a surface-to-air missile (using a Man Portable Air Defence System). The Lynx crashed into a house and burst into flames, killing all five on board, including the Commanding Officer of 847 NAS. A riot followed with locals celebrating the downing of the helicopter and surrounding the crash site as British troops rushed to the scene. This was the first British helicopter and only the second British aircraft downed (the first was an RAF Hercules) due to enemy fire in the war. A flight of either AAC or RM Lynx AH.7s are based at Basra Air Station under command of the Joint Helicopter Force (Iraq) on a rotational basis,[16] but are restricted operationally during the summer months due to the very high daytime temperatures which affect lifting capacity and endurance dramatically.

The Super Lynx has been used extensively by the Portuguese Navy in Operation Ocean Shield. It operates from NRP Alvares Cabral and has been fitted with a FN M3M 12.7mm machine gun.

On 3 March 2011, one Royal Netherlands Navy Naval Aviation Service Lynx was captured in Libya during a rescue mission. Three navy personnel were taken prisoner by Libyan troops and two civilians were evacuated by other means.[17]

Variants

Land-based variants

File:Lynx Hubschrauber IFOR.jpg
A British Army Lynx AH.7 in Bosnia during Operation Joint Endeavor - Peace Implementation Force (IFOR), 7 May 1996
Westland WG.13
Prototype, first flight 21 March 1971. Thirteen prototypes built.[18]
Lynx AH.1
Initial production version for the British Army Air Corps, powered by 671 kW (900 hp) Gem 2 engines,[19] with first production example flying 11 February 1977, and deliveries continuing until February 1984, with 113 built.[20] Used for a variety of tasks, including tactical transport, armed escort, anti-tank warfare (60 were equipped with eight TOW missiles as Lynx AH.1 (TOW) from 1981),[21] reconnaissance and casualty evacuation.[22]
Lynx AH.1GT
Interim conversion of the AH.1 to partial AH.7 standard for the Army Air Corps with uprated engines and revised tail rotor.[23]
Lynx HT.1
Planned training version for Royal Air Force. Cancelled.[23]
Lynx AH.5
Upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with 835 kW (1,120 shp) Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox.[24] Three built as AH.5 (Interim) as Trials aircraft for MoD. Eight ordered as AH.5s for Army Air Corps, of which only two built as AH.5s, with remaining six completed as AH.7s.[25] Four were later upgraded to AH.7 standard and one was retained for trials work as an AH.5X.
Lynx AH.6
Proposed version for the Royal Marines with undercarriage, folding tail and deck harpoon of Naval Lynx. Not built.[25]
Lynx AH.7
Further upgraded version for the Army Air Corps, with Gem 41-1 engines and uprated gearbox of AH.5 and new, larger, composite tail rotor. Later refitted with BERP type rotor blades. Twelve new build, with 107 Lynx AH.1s converted.[26] A small number also used by the Fleet Air Arm in support of the Royal Marines.[27] Now replaced by the WAH-64 Apache as the main attack helicopter.
Lynx AH.7(DAS)
AH.7 with Defensive Aids Subsystem.
Lynx AH.9 ("Battlefield Lynx")
Utility version for Army Air Corps, based on AH.7, but with wheeled undercarriage and further upgraded gearbox. Sixteen new-built plus eight converted from AH.7s.[28]
Lynx AH.9A
AH.9 with uprated LHTEC CTS800-4N 1,015 kW (1,362 shp) engines.[29] 22 are to be upgraded.[30]

Naval variants

File:LynxInAntarctica.jpg
Royal Navy Lynx HAS.3(ICE(S)) supporting an Antarctic research base
Lynx HAS.2 / Mk.2(FN)
Initial production version for the Royal Navy (HAS.2) and the French Navy (Mk.2(FN)), powered by Gem 2 engines and with wheeled undercarriage, folding rotors and tail and deck harpoon. HAS.2 equipped with British Sea Spray radar, with Mk.2(FN) having French radar and dipping sonar. When it is used in the anti-submarine role, it can carry two torpedoes or depth charges. For anti-surface warfare, it is equipped with either four Sea Skua missiles (Royal Navy) or four AS.12 missiles (French Navy).[31] 60 built for Royal Navy,[32] and 26 for France.[33]
Lynx HAS.3
Improved version of HAS.2 powered by Gem 42-1 engines and with upgraded gearbox. Thirty built from new, with deliveries starting in March 1982 and all remaining HAS.2s (53 aircraft) converted to HAS.3 standards.[34][35]
Lynx HAS.3S
Improved version of the HAS.3 for the Royal Navy fitted with secure radio systems.[36]
Lynx HAS.3GM
Modified helicopters for the Royal Navy, for service in the Persian Gulf, with improved electronic warfare equipment, revised IFF and provision for Forward looking infrared (FLIR) under fuselage. Originally deployed for 1990-91 Gulf War. Designated HAS.3S/GM when fitted with secure radios.[36] (GM denotes Gulf Modification).
Lynx HAS.3ICE
HAS.3 modified for Antarctic service aboard ice patrol ship HMS Endurance. Designated HAS.3SICE when fitted with secure radios.[37]
Lynx HAS.3CTS
HAS.3 upgraded with avionics system proposed for HMA.8. Seven converted as test beds.[37]
Lynx Mk.4(FN)
Upgraded version for the Aéronavale, with Gem 42-1 engines. Fourteen built.[37]
Lynx HMA.8
Upgraded maritime attack version based on Super Lynx 100. Gem 42-200 engines, BERP type main rotors and larger tail rotor of AH.7. Fitted with FLIR in turret above nose, with radar moved to radome below nose.[38]
Lynx HMA.8(DSP)
Digital Signal Processor.
Lynx HMA.8(DAS)
Defensive Aids Subsystem. (DSP aircraft modified).
Lynx HMA.8(SRU)
SATURN (Second-generation Anti-jam Tactical UHF Radio for NATO) Radio Upgrade. (DAS aircraft modified. Incorporates SIFF (Successor to IFF)).
Lynx HMA.8(CMP) see note below
Combined Mods Programme. (SRU aircraft modified with improved comms and defensive systems).
Note: At the time of writing, all HMA.8 aircraft have been upgraded to CMP standard and as such HMA.8(CMP) aircraft have since been re-designated back to HMA.8(SRU). The Lynx HAS.8 fleet are currently undergoing further modifications, by the Lynx Operational Support Team, to improve self-defense, mission execution and survivability. These modifications will not effect the SRU designation.

Export variants

File:070902-N-1810F-618.jpg
A boarding team rappel onto their ship from a Brazilian Navy Super Lynx Mk.21A
File:Lynx der lander.jpg
Lynx Mk.90B landing on Royal Danish Navy THETIS-class
Lynx Mk.21
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Brazilian Navy. Brazilian navy designation SAH-11. Nine delivered.[39]
Super Lynx Mk.21A
Version of the Super Lynx (based on HAS.Mk.8) for the Brazilian navy, with Gem 42 engines and 360° traverse Seaspray 3000 radar under nose. Nine new build helicopters plus upgrades of remaining five original Mk.21s.[40]
Lynx Mk.22
Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian Navy.[39]
Lynx Mk.23
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Argentine Navy. Two built. Grounded due to British embargo on spares following Falklands War. Single surviving helicopter later sold to Denmark.[39]
Lynx Mk.24
Unbuilt export utility version for the Iraqi army.[25]
Lynx Mk.25
Export version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Netherlands Navy. Designated UH-14A in Dutch service. Used for utility and SAR roles.[39]
Lynx Mk.26
Unbuilt export armed version for the Iraqi army.[25]
Lynx Mk.27
Export version for the Royal Netherlands Navy with 836 kW (1,120 kW) Gem 4 engines. Equipped for ASW missions with dipping sonar. Designated SH-14B in Dutch service. 10 built.[34]
Lynx Mk.28
Export version of the AH.1 for the Qatar Police. Three built.[25]
Lynx Mk.64
Export version of the Super Lynx for the South African Air Force.
Lynx Mk.80
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy based on the HAS.3 but with non-folding tail. Eight built.[41]
Lynx Mk.81
Upgraded ASW version for the Royal Netherlands Navy, powered by Gem 41 engines with no sonar but fitted with towed Magnetic anomaly detector. Designated SH-14C in Dutch service, and mainly used for training and utility purposes. Eight built.[42]
SH-14D
UH-14A/SH-14B/SH-14C Lynx upgraded to a common standard by the Royal Netherlands Navy under the STAMOL programme with Gem 42 engines, provision for dipping sonar and FLIR. 22 upgraded.[42][43]
Lynx Mk.82
Unbuilt export version for the Egyptian army.[25]
Lynx Mk.83
Unbuilt export version for the Saudi Arabian army.[25]
Lynx Mk 84
Unbuilt export version for the Qatar army.[25]
Lynx Mk 85
Unbuilt export version for the United Arab Emirates army.[25]
Lynx Mk.86
Export SAR version of the HAS.2 for the Royal Norwegian Air Force.[34]
Lynx Mk.87
Embargoed export version for the Argentine navy. Two completed and sold to Denmark as Mk.90[42][44] other six not built[45]
Lynx Mk.88
Export version for the German Navy with Gem 42 engines, and dipping sonar. Nineteen built.[46] Super Lynx Mk.88A is an upgraded version with Gem 42 engines, under-nose radome with 360°traverse radar and FLIR above nose. Seven new build helicopters plus conversion of Mk.88s.[47][48]
Lynx Mk.89
Export version of HAS.3 for the Nigerian navy. Three built.[46]
Lynx Mk.90
Export version for the Royal Danish Navy, modified from embargoed Argentine Mk.87s. Lynx Mk.90A is the upgraded version.[46] The Lynx Mk.90 and Mk.90A were upgraded to Super Lynx standard and designated Mk.90B.[47][48]
Lynx Mk.95
Version of Super Lynx for the Portuguese Navy, with Bendix radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar but no FLIR. Three new build plus two converted ex-Royal Navy HAS.3s.[47]
Super Lynx Mk.99
Version of Super Lynx for the South Korean Navy, with Seaspray 3 radar in undernose radome, dipping sonar, and FLIR, for anti-submarine and anti-ship operations.[49] Twelve were built. Super Lynx Mk.99A is the upgraded version with improved rotor, with a further 13 built.[50][51] Hulls were produced in the United Kingdom while South Korea supplied domestic ISTAR, electro-optical, electronic warfare, and fire-control systems,[52][53][54] as well as flight control actuators[55] and undercarriage.[56]
Super Lynx Mk.100
Super Lynx for the Royal Malaysian Navy, with 990 kW (1,327 hp) CTS-800-4N engines.[57] Six built.[58]
Super Lynx Mk.110
Super Lynx 300 for Thai Navy. Four ordered.[58][59]
Super Lynx Mk.120
Export version for the Royal Air Force of Oman. 16 built.[58]
Super Lynx Mk.130
Export version for the Algerian Navy. Four ordered.[60]
Super Lynx 300
Advanced Super Lynx with CTS-800-4N engines.[57]

Projects

Lynx HT.3
Proposed training version for the Royal Air Force, not built.
Lynx-3
Enhanced Lynx variant with Westland 30 tail boom and rotor, Gem 60 engines, new wheeled tricycle undercarriage and MIL-STD-1553 databus. Only one prototype built (serial/registration ZE477 / G-17-24) in 1984.[61]
Battlefield Lynx
Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9.
Battlefield Lynx 800
Proposed export version of Lynx AH.9 with LHTEC T800 engines,[62] the project was suspended in 1992.[63] One demonstrator helicopter was built and flight tested.[12]
Lynx ACH
Proposed Advanced Compound Helicopter technology demonstrator, partly funded by the Ministry of Defence. Announced in May 1998, the ACH was planned to be powered by RTM322 engines with variable area exhaust nozzles and a gearbox from the Westland 30-200, have wings attached at cabin roof level and BERP rotor blades. It was predicted to fly approximately 50% faster than a standard Lynx.[64]

Derivatives

Westland 30
medium helicopter based on the Lynx, using some dynamic systems with a new, enlarged fuselage for up to 22 passengers.
AgustaWestland AW159 Lynx Wildcat
a development of the Super Lynx with two LHTEC CTS800 engines; previously known as the Future Lynx.

NOTES: AH = Army Helicopter, HAS = Helicopter, Anti-Submarine, HMA = Helicopter, Maritime Attack, IFF = Identification Friend or Foe, (GM) = Gulf Modification, (S) = Secure speech radio, and SIFF = Successor to IFF.

Operators

File:050618-Lynx-01.jpg
Lynx of the Royal Danish Navy
File:Lynx Mk-95 VDG DN-SD-01-04936.jpg
Lynx of the Portuguese Navy
File:Lynx01.jpg
Westland Super Lynx Mk.21A of the Brazilian Navy

Military operators

Template:ALG
Template:ARG
  • Argentine Navy: The Argentine Naval Aviation ordered ten Mk.23s but only two were delivered before the outbreak of the Falklands War and the ensuing arms embargo imposed by the British. To make up for the undelivered aircraft, the Argentines ordered the Eurocopter Fennec. The two delivered helicopters in addition to the undelivered helicopters were later sold to the Danish Navy and Brazilian Navy.
Template:BRA
Template:DNK
  • Royal Danish Air Force: 8 Super Lynx Mk.90Bs used for various missions. These were originally operated by the Royal Danish Navy until January 2011.
Template:FRA
Template:GER
Template:MYS
Template:NLD
  • Royal Netherlands Navy: 20 Super Lynx SH-14D. Originally received 6 search and rescue (UH-14A/Mk.25) and 18 anti-submarine warfare models (SH-14B/Mk.27 and SH-14C/Mk.81), which have all been upgraded to SH-14D standard for both SAR and ASW duties.
Template:NGA
  • Nigerian Navy: 3 Lynx Mk.89 (One caught fire and was destroyed) - used for anti-submarine warfare. Retired from service.
Template:NOR
Template:OMN
Template:PAK
Template:POR
Template:RSA
File:ZD284 RIAT Bthebest.JPG
British Army Air Corps AH.7 at RIAT 2010.
Template:KOR
Template:THA
  • Royal Thai Navy had 2 Super Lynx 300s in use in January 2010.[67] Operated by 203 Squadron at U-Tapao RTNS, Chonburi Province, Thailand.
Template:UK

Law Enforcement operators

Template:QAT

Specifications (Super Lynx Series 100)

Data from Flight International World Aircraft and Systems Directory (3rd ed.)

General characteristics

  • Crew: 2 or 3
  • Capacity: 10 troops
  • Payload: 737 kgTemplate:Clarify ()
  • Length: 15.241 m (50 ft)
  • Rotor diameter: 12.80 m (42 ft)
  • Height: 3.734 m for mk7; 3.785 m for mk9 (12.25 ft for mk7; 12.41 ft for mk9)
  • Disc area: 128.71 m² (1,385 ft²)
  • Empty weight: 3,291 kg (7,255 lb)
  • Max takeoff weight: 5,330 kg (11,750 lb)
  • Powerplant:Rolls-Royce Gem turboshaft, 835 kW (1,120 shp) each

Performance

Armament


See also

Related development

Comparable aircraft

Related lists

References

Notes
  1. 1.0 1.1 1.2 Rotorcraft World Records, Absolute Rotorcraft World Records. Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI)
  2. James 1991, pp. 400–401.
  3. 3.0 3.1 James 1991, p. 401.
  4. 4.0 4.1 4.2 Donald, David, ed. "Westland Lynx". The Complete Encyclopedia of World Aircraft. Barnes & Nobel Books, 1997. ISBN 0-7607-0592-5.
  5. 5.0 5.1 5.2 Apostolo, Giorgio. "Westland Lynx". "Westland Lynx 3". The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Helicopters. New York: Bonanza Books. 1984. ISBN 978-0-517-43935-7.
  6. "AgustaWestland Lynx,Super Lynx and Future Lynx" Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems. Jane's Information Group, 2010. (subscription article, dated 13 April 2010).
  7. James 1991, p. 402.
  8. Rotorcraft World Records, List of records established by the 'Lynx A.H. Mk.1'. Fédération Aéronautique Internationale (FAI). Retrieved 15 February 2009.
  9. 9.00 9.01 9.02 9.03 9.04 9.05 9.06 9.07 9.08 9.09 9.10 Lynx. Vectorsite.net, 1 January 2010.
  10. Lynx – The World’s Fastest Helicopter 20 Years On. SBAC (2006-08-11). Retrieved on 2009-04-30.
  11. Westland Lynx AH.Mk1, G-LYNX/ZB500. Friends of The Helicopter Museum. Retrieved on 2009-04-30.
  12. 12.0 12.1 12.2 Eden 2004, pp. 495, 497.
  13. "AgustaWestland Lynx,Super Lynx and Future Lynx". Jane's Helicopter Markets and Systems. Jane's Information group, 2009. subscription article, dated 8 July 2009.
  14. Rotorhead images. b-domke.de/AviationImages
  15. Ethell and Price 1983, pp. 248-249.
  16. Lynx Helicopter Base Details
  17. (2011-03-03) "Nederlandse militairen gegijzeld in Libië". De Telegraaf. Retrieved on 2011-03-03. 
  18. Lake 1999, pp. 134–135.
  19. James 1991, p. 426.
  20. James 1991, pp. 405–406.
  21. Lake 1999, p. 136.
  22. Lake 1999, pp. 135–136.
  23. 23.0 23.1 Lake 1999, p. 135.
  24. James 1991, p. 411.
  25. 25.0 25.1 25.2 25.3 25.4 25.5 25.6 25.7 25.8 Lake 1999, p. 137.
  26. Lake 1999, p. 138.
  27. http://www.royalnavy.mod.uk/operations-and-support/fleet-air-arm/naval-air-squadrons/847/
  28. Lake 1999, p. 139.
  29. Hoyle, Craig (2009-04-30). "British Army's re-engined Lynx AH9A to fly in July". Flight International. Retrieved on 2009-07-23. 
  30. "UK Outlines Helicopter Plans". Air International, September 2009, Vol 77 No. 3. p. 6.
  31. Lake 2000, pp. 112–113.
  32. James 1991, p. 408.
  33. James 1991, p. 418.
  34. 34.0 34.1 34.2 Lake 2000, p.114.
  35. James 1991, p. 410.
  36. 36.0 36.1 Lake 2000 pp. 114–115.
  37. 37.0 37.1 37.2 Lake 2000, p. 115.
  38. Lake 2000, pp. 118–119.
  39. 39.0 39.1 39.2 39.3 Lake 2000 p. 113.
  40. Lake 2000, p. 119.
  41. James 1991, p.421.
  42. 42.0 42.1 42.2 Lake 2000, p. 116.
  43. Laranjeira, Luis. Versions History. www.the-grey-lynx.com. Retrieved on 2009-04-01.
  44. 249,256
  45. 264,281,282,284,287,289
  46. 46.0 46.1 46.2 Lake 2000 p.117.
  47. 47.0 47.1 47.2 Lake 2000, p. 120.
  48. 48.0 48.1 Naval Lynx HAS.3 / HAS.3 Export Variants. Vectorsite.net, , 1 January 2010.
  49. Super Lynx ASW exercise.
  50. Lake 2000, p. 121.
  51. 51.0 51.1 Naval Lynxes / Next-Generation Lynxes & Derivatives. Vectorsite.net, 1 January 2010.
  52. LIG Nex1 Super Lynx ISR/EW.
  53. Samsung Thales Super Lynx electro-optical targeting system.
  54. Samsung Thales Super Lynx dipping sonar.
  55. Hanwha Super Lynx flight control actuator.
  56. WIA Super Lynx undercarriage.
  57. 57.0 57.1 Gray Flight International 16–22 July 2002, p. 90.
  58. 58.0 58.1 58.2 Penney. Flight International. 16–22 July 2002, p.92.
  59. Flight International. 11–17 November 2008, p. 73.
  60. Flight International. 11–17 November 2008, p. 52.
  61. (1983-03-05) "Lynx family gets tougher". Flight International: p596. 
  62. Flight International 30 January-5 February 1991, p.16.
  63. Flight International, 11–17 March 1992.
  64. Warwick, Graham (1998-05-27). "Westland prepares compound helicopter demonstrator". Flight International. 
  65. "South African Super Lynx 300 At Paris Air Show". AgustaWestland.com
  66. "The eagles have landed" South African Navy Official Web Site.
  67. "World Military Aircraft Inventory". 2010 Aerospace Source Book. Aviation Week and Space Technology, January 2010.
  68. army.mod.uk: Lynx AH7 & AH9
Bibliography

External links

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cs:Westland Lynx da:Westland Lynx de:Westland Lynx es:Westland Lynx fr:Lynx (hélicoptère) ko:슈퍼링스 id:Westland Lynx it:Westland Lynx ms:Westland Lynx nl:Westland Lynx ja:アグスタウェストランド リンクス no:Westland Lynx pnb:لینکس ہیلیکاپٹر pl:Westland Lynx pt:Westland Lynx ru:Westland Lynx sv:Westland Lynx th:เวสต์แลนด์ลิงซ์ uk:Westland Lynx


This article is licensed under the GNU Free Documentation License.
It uses material from the Wikipedia article "Westland Lynx".
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